The cough is unproductive or is accompanied by the discharge of a small amount of yellowish sputum, hemoptysis is very rarely noted.

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Patients also complain of Levitra, weight loss, general weakness, decreased performance, chest pain (a rare symptom). Body temperature often rises (usually up to 38 ° C), most often this is due to the addition of non-bacterial superinfection (for example, Nocardia, Aspergillus, Gyptococcus). In the absence of secondary infection, persistent fever is not characteristic. Differential diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is differentiated with acute pulmonary edema, hematogenous disseminated tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fibrosing idiopathic alveolitis, and chronic bronchitis. In unclear cases, a lung biopsy helps.

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Mechanical retention of earth masses: Mechanical retention of Vardenafil masses on a slope is provided by buttress structures of various designs. General conditions for choosing a drainage system: The drainage system is selected depending on the nature of the protected. Alveolar proteinosis of the lungs.


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What is alveolar proteinosis of the lungs. Alveolar proteinosis of the lungs is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of Levitra 10mg pills substance in the alveoli and bronchioles. Mostly men are ill (3-4 times more often than women) at the age of 30-35 years. However, the disease also occurs in children and the elderly.


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Pathological anatomy. Macroscopically, grayish-white dense tubercles in the form of grains are determined on the surface of the lungs. Microscopic examination reveals a CHIC-positive substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycolipids are stained with Schiff's reagent in purple or lilac-red color), filling the alveoli and bronchioles. Birefringent crystals are found. There are no signs of inflammation.


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Symptoms of alveolar proteinosis of the lungs: NeredThe main reason for the patient to see a doctor is slowly but steadily progressing shortness of breath, which may be accompanied by a cough with scanty, yellowish sputum, sometimes hemoptysis, subfebrile body temperature, chest pain, cyanosis (depending on the degree of respiratory insufficiency), sweating, weight loss, fast fatigue.

An objective examination determines the shortening of the percussion tone, mainly in the lower sections of the lungs.


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On auscultation - weakened vesicular breathing, less often - gentle crepitant wheezing. Clinical and biochemical analyzes do not contain any signs characteristic of levitra pulmonary proteinosis. In some patients, an increase in the level of cholesterol, calcium is determined in the blood.

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An x-ray examination of the lungs reveals small focal shadows that merge with each other, with predominantly basal and basal localization. These changes are usually bilateral. Bronchoscopy is uninformative. The diffusion capacity of the lungs decreases, restrictive ventilation disorders slowly progress, and hypoxemia is detected during exercise.


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Along the course, acute and chronic forms of alveolar lung proteiosis are distinguished. In the terminal stages, a cor pulmonale is formed. Diagnosis of alveolar proteinosis of the lungs: A definite diagnosis can only be established with the help of a lung biopsy. This disease should be differentiated from other disseminated processes in the lungs.


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Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are ineffective. In 1964, lung lavage was first used in four patients with alveolar proteinosis. A patient undergoing lung lavage is intubated. Under general anesthesia, one lung is ventilated with pure oxygen; and the second lung (lobe, segment) is washed with saline containing heparin and enzymes (N-acetylcysteine, streptase, etc.).


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The total volume of fluid, depending on the area to be washed (segment, lobe, lung), ranges from 1 to 20 liters. As a rule, after an effective lavage, there is a positive clinical, radiological and functional dynamics. Depending on the rate of progression of the disease, lung lavage is repeated after 6-24 months.



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Prn progression of the process (acute forms) 80% of patients die within 5 years. The prognosis is much more favorable in chronic (benign) forms, timely diagnosis, adequate treatment and rational employment.


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The addition of bacterial, viral or fungal superinfection significantly worsens the prognosis.


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Diagnosis is based on X-ray data and computed tomography of the lungs, respiratory function, lung biopsy, and laboratory tests. Therapy of alveolar proteinosis consists in carrying out therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage.


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Alveolar proteinosis is a pulmonary pathology associated with hyperproduction of surfactant and filling the cavity of the alveoli with excess protein-lipid mass. In the case of alveolar proteinosis, shortness of breath steadily progresses, an unproductive cough occurs, low-grade fever, weight loss, sweating, fatigue, and respiratory failure may develop.






The cause of this condition can be chronic viral or bacterial infections (especially those caused by pneumocystis, mycobacteria, fungi), smoking, occupational hazards (prolonged inhalation of pollutants in the production of heavy metals, silicon, aluminum, plastics).tmass), hemoblastosis, reduced immunity.




The most common idiopathic alveolar proteinosis develops in the presence of autoantibodies to GM-CSF, causing damage to its structure and a decrease in functional activity. Rare forms of secondary alveolar proteinosis are associated with deficiency and functional insufficiency of alveolar macrophages.




Different forms of alveolar proteinosis have their own determining factors. Congenital alveolar proteinosis is caused by gene mutations that lead to the pathology of vardenafil metabolism, in particular, impaired synthesis of surfactant type B or C proteins, anomalies of the GM-CSF receptor.




The prevalence of pathology is low - 0.2 cases per 1 million population. In most cases, the disease manifests itself at the age of 30-50 years, although it can occur in children and elderly patients. Among the sick, there is a clear predominance of levitra - the ratio of men and women is 5:1.






Alveolar proteinosis can be primary (idiopathic) and secondary (developing against the background of an existing pathology), congenital or acquired. According to the flow in pulmonology, acute and chronic forms of alveolar proteinosis are differentiated.






Causes Pathogenesis Symptoms of alveolar proteinosis Diagnosis Treatment of alveolar proteinosis Prognosis and prevention Prices for treatment. Alveolar proteinosis is an interstitial lung disease, accompanied by changes in the lung tissue due to the deposition of a protein-lipid substrate on the inner surface of the alveoli.



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